January and february

Anonyme, « British insects and buterflies », The Illustrated London almanach, Londres, 1859, p. 0.

The latter, by means of a silky secrétion, form for themselves a sort of sheath, to which is attached a coating, generally rough, sometimes merely granular, consisting of bits of wood, small pebbles, sand, and particles of the shells of water-snails. Protruding the fore part of their body from this singular case, they crawl about, looking like inanimate rough little nothing, self-endowed with the power of locomotion. Well does the angler know the value of the caddis-worm (for such is the popular name of these larvae) as a bait. The caddis-worm is more active on the sandy bed of the water than might be supposed. It is very voracious, and carnivorous in its appetite, devouring both dead and living prey.

january and february , p. 8.

The aquatic larvae of the phryganeae are know of the fisherman as caddis-worms ;those of the ephemera being called bankbait. The caddis-worm make for themselves curious habitations, which snailike they drag about with them as they crawl along the sandy bottom of streams or rivers. These habitations are tubular, so as to fit the body of the larva ; and each species has its own selection in the choice of materials. Some glue particles of wood together, intermixed with gravel, and thus make a rough case, some use portions of the slender stems of rushes, and form a fluted cylinder ; some agglutinate grains and sand together, and form a smooth and sightly domicile ; others avail themselves of fragments of river-shells, intermixed with small pebbles, making a fanciful grotto-like tenement smothly lined with silk. In clear shallow water these larvae may be observed with the head and thorax protruted crawling about a quest of food. We have seen numbers surround a crushed snail, purposely thrown in among them, and commence with cagerness to devour it. These caddis-worms are very careful as to adjustment of the specific gravity of their case ; it must not incumber them, but it must be submerged. Often, therefore, and alterations made and with that precision which is the result of unerring instinct.

may and june , p. 28.

The water presents us in the instance of caddis-worm (Phryganea) and others, the example of larvae making unto themselves a domicile which, snaillike, they carry about with them.

 July and august, p. 38.