Laurence E. Palmer, « Some Common Fresh-water Insects », Nature Magazine, Washington, American Nature Association, vol. 31, n° 8, octobre 1938, p. 482.
Behavior : Food of adults, nothing ; of larvae, a great variety of plant and animal materials, some caught by prowling, some by nets stetched in moving water. Protection largely by means of protective houses, some of which are strong. Houses in moving water commonly of stones ; in still water, of easily-moved plant materials.