Macroinvertebrate architects

Laurie Toupin, Freshwater Habitats Life in Freshwater Ecosystems, New York, Watts Library, Scholastic Inc., 2004. p.30

The caddis fly larvae are macroinvertebrate architects. They protect their soft, wormlike bodies by constructing hollow cases from sand, twigs small stones, crushed shells, rolled leaves, and pieces of bark. They feed on algae, plant material, and animals.