Edward George Boulenger, World Natural History, Londres, B. T. Batsford, 1937, p. 230.
The members of the sub-order Trichoptea, the Caddis flies, are know by the larvae which conceal their soft bodies in tubular protective cases made of leaves, gravel, sticks, shells, etc. The larva carries hooks on its abdomen by means of which it anchors itself in its case. In aquaria many species can be induced to employ coloured beads in the manufactured of their cases. The tube is sealed with a « drum head » of silk during the period of pupation. The larva of a marine species employs coralline and sea-weed in the formation of its case.